IVF (in vitro/test tube fertilisation) is typically used when both of a woman’s fallopian tubes are blocked. However, the man’s semen quality, the age of the woman, the level of psychological strain on the couple and a lack of success from other treatments may also affect the decision to attempt IVF
With IVF, sperm is introduced to one or more egg cells outside of the body, to transfer the embryo to the uterine cavity after fertilisation and embryonic development in order to achieve pregnancy.
Various combinations of medications can be used for this purpose. These combinations are known as protocols. Which protocol is used will depend on various factors.
IVF can be performed in various ways:
If the woman’s test results are accompanied by severely reduced semen quality, it is possible to fertilise each individual egg cell with a single sperm: ICSI
If no sperm is available, these treatments can also be done with donor sperm (ADI).
— Diagrams: © bei Prof. Herrero, Barcelona