In cases in which no sperm at all can be found in the ejaculate (seminal fluid), many patients have the option to extract the sperm cells directly from the testicular tissue. This procedure is called TESE (testicular sperm extraction). Testicular tissue is hereby removed with a small surgical intervention and used on the same day for ICSI of the partner or frozen for the time being (cryoconservation). If the testicular tissue (which is tested during surgery for the actual presence of sperm) has been frozen, the subsequent treatment for the woman is just as simple in terms of logistics/timing as conventional IVF.
In these cases, too, Mini-IVF™ and conventional IVF (naturally along with ICSI) can be performed as the “base therapy”. However, NC-IVF is not advisable since the “base material” (testicular tissue) is not available in unlimited amounts.
— Diagrams: © Prof. Herrero, Barcelona